Renal disease & Hemodialysis

Benefits

It improves inflammatory reactions in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In these patients, additional administration of hydrogen water along with the solutions employed, reverses the oxidative stress induced by hemodialysis and improves the quality of life of patients.

Research

Hydrogen rich water improves, and even reverses, renal toxicity induced by certain drugs by reducing oxidative stress. It also reduces the serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), both indicators of the renal function.

Nakayama examined the effects of adding hydrogen rich water on hemodialysis in a group of 8 patients during 12 sessions, noticing an improvement in the treatment itself as well as a decrease in systolic blood pressure before and after dialysis.

A clinical trial carried out during 6 months and conducted in 21 patients undergoing hemodialysis three times per week (a total of 78 sessions) revealed that adding hydrogen rich water to the hemodialysis solutions caused a reduction of inflammatory reactions, decreased oxidative stress markers and favoured the control of blood pressure, improving the quality of life of patients.

Hemodialysis causes increased oxidative stress. It is associated with serious cardiovascular disease and premature death in patients undergoing dialysis. Terawaki et al. tested in 8 patients the hydrogen antioxidant capabilities against induced by hemodialysis oxidative stress, assessing its beneficial effect since it reduced oxidative stress that is generated within the dialyzer. Therefore, hydrogen rich water can improve the redox state of patients.

Chronic hemodialysis impair red blood cells, causing hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). It has been assessed whether hydrogen rich water may ease this deterioration and the consequent anemia. Huang et al studied 43 patients undergoing hemodyalisis who were given hydrogen water, other antioxidants such as vitamin C and E or anything at all for six months, assessing oxidative stress in erythrocytes i all the patients thanks to specific indicators and parameters of inflammation.

Those patients who dis not received anything after hemodialysis showed a remarkable increase (15 times) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly H2O2. Treatment with antioxidants significantly eased oxidative stress induced by hemodialysis as well as indicators of red cell damage in the order vitamin C> hydrogen water > Vitamin E. After six months of treatment with hydrogen water hematocrit ( percentage of red blood cells in blood) increased and both oxidative stress and the level of proinflammatory cytokines were reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

In patients undergoing the end stage renal disease (ESRD ), an increase in oxidative stress causes oxidation of macromolecules and the presence of cardiovascular events during hemodialysis. Reduced water obtained by electrolysis has the capability to neutralize harmful ROS as well as to reduce oxidative stress induced by dialysis.

In the study of Huang et al. hydrogen rich water intake managed to decrease those ROS which have been increased by hemodialysis. It also minimized the level of inflammatory markers and partially restored rust and antioxidant defense in patients undergoing 1 month of treatment.

In experimental animals undergoing kidney transplant, hydrogen water intake improved the function of the transplanted organ, progression of chronic transplant nephropathy was delayed, oxidative damage and inflammatory processes were reduced and overall survival improved.